Functionally graded materials FGM are those in which composition and structure change over the volume, resulting in corresponding changes in the properties of the material, trying to optimize the properties of both components, depending on the specific use demanded for the result. At this point the mixture that has been developed is a functionally graded material of graphene and clay. The fabrication of the gradient is classified as constructive, and the result is a stepwise graduation, with each step consisting of a different concentration of graphene.
In comparison with composites, functionally graded materials are singular multi materials that vary their consistency gradually over their volume.
GRAPHENE COMPOSITE_ Digital Matter _IaaC - FabLab BCN by Ricardo Mayor Luque - Issuu
The use of multi materials is expected to become prevalent in both fabrication and construction and will facilitate innovative architecture through merging different materials that will be fused together three-dimensionally. Thinking about material behaviour and building technique has become crucial as an integral and defining part of the design process and methodology.
With the latest prototype we were able to establish one gradient going from the bottom to the top with the composites, with technology that is on the rise multiple gradients can be achieved in different axis. Functionally graded materials. Reading: Kluwer Academic Publishers. At this point the research moved from the manual casting methods, to an investigation of robotic fabrication. The advantages of using robotic fabrication methods are mostly the overcoming of the fabrication limitations of manual methods and the potential uses of the material and the building technique in the future.
The fabrication strategy of the prototype was as such: The gradient was created by five layers with different consistencies of graphene. The prototype was 3d printed from a robot with a single extruder so the different mixes had to be changed manually to create the step-wise graduation in the extrusion. During the extrusion the consistency of graphene was decreasing with each mix, leading to a vertical gradient with the greatest amount of graphene in the bottom. The section included a series of curves aiming to better heat radiation performance.
The curvature of this shapes decreased from bottom to top following the vertical consistency gradient. The biggest challenge of this fabrication technique was the shrinkage of the composite due to the evaporation of the water in the mix. For that reason a series of extra curvatures had to be included in the section to add elasticity to the shape, so it would transform while retracting instead of cracking. It allows printing with a layer thickness between 1 and 7 mm, 6 to 30 mm in width, at a speed between 0.
After this work, guided by Kunal Chadha, the expert in robotic fabrication at IAAC, we did few modifications in this extruder model in order to set up our fabrication Project. The tests then continued to branching simulations. An optimum ratio between lines width and length was discovered. Moreover, we started our tests with a composition low in the water trying to get conclusions about cracks in final 3d print results.
Furthermore, experiment 02 was our first test in Kuka Robot with the extruder. After this work, while the experiment 01 doing a straight line of 80mm in 8 layer height showed us cracks each 50 mm, the experiment 02 doing a circle diameter of mm showed u that we reduced the cracks each 15mm. Then these lines were subjected to various degrees of rotation that generated overlapping, intersections, continuous lines and symmetry in order to maximize the cleanliness of the models. To sum it, cracks and shrinkage are relative to length and geometry experiment.
This five compositions will be changed inside the extruder during the 3d printing process. The final functional graded material will be composed of a Graphene degradation which brings us the parameters to control the conductivity and a new molecular-scale of the material. This proposal would like to add another parameter in the fabrication process to continue the research that will be the multimaterial multi-extruder research in order to get the Functional Graded Material. The project combines 3 various postures inside the material design shape: vertical degradation material, radiation Surface, and optimisation material.
Examples of this proposal come as a new addition to the additive manufacturing industry since not only it combines the 3 approaches into one, but the final aim of the project is building a performative surface. Multi-material 3D printing techniques are being developed to produce structures with new mixed materials with completely novel properties.
This will challenge prefabrication as machine learning algorithms will also become more critical in the design process. With new fabrication and printing techniques complex structures and better mechanical properties can be achieved. It has the potential to speed up innovative projects that have been previously impossible or difficult to fabricate and to make changes easily and cheaply. Printing with multiple nozzles has the same quality as printing with a single nozzle. However, multi-material additive manufacturing is still happening in microscopic and macroscopic levels and current systems still have many shortcomings Material distribution is optimized to space specific constraints, or simple constraints such as maximizing stiffness.
The design algorithm is able to optimize geometries and can improve material distribution Design Automation for Multi-Material Printing. The properties of graphene taken into account in this investigation, were mostly electrical and heat conductivity, but also mechanical properties and solar energy conversion. The potential uses of graphene in architecture though are limitless, and the examples following are an attempt to imagine some of them in a context of expanding the limits of what is considered today as the field of architecture.
Mechanical Properties Graphene as a material with extraordinary mechanical properties, could be integrated in construction allowing a completely new type of architectural vocabulary to emerge. With composite materials slender but very strong structures are able to be constructed. Conduction This property of graphene is similar with other forms of carbon such as carbon fibres.
The advantage of graphene is that being a powder, it can mix with other building materials and create gradients, allowing a huge expansion of the ways to control the heat and create complex thermodynamic systems. This property could be combined with the electrical conductivity to create active heating systems, or used in a passive way to control heat in extreme building environments.
Electric Applications The electrical conductivity of graphene is probably the one property exploited the most by now in many scientific fields. In an architectural context, there can be several uses of a conductive building material. They vary from simply replacing the electrical installations of a building with a material that could be cast or 3D printed, to turning the built environment into a computational device by integrating complex circuits into construction. The possibilities that derive from a brittlematerial with conductive properties allow buildings to become sensors, means of data transfer and potential data storage.
Using such a material could mean the unification of computing and built space, as the building could be the circuits that dominate our digital environment. Graphene supercapacitors work as energy storages and graphene can also be used as data storage. Technology storage is able to support data transmission and enables possibilities for optoelectronics, which means graphene can optically transmit light and it can provide interactive information as part of computers and nanotechnology that are integrated with graphene.
Future cities The generic city model is based on needs of a computable city. This model with global and local properties can be place specific, buildings and cities can become tailor made, to create an own identity There are many global similarities in urban settings, however cities do differ greatly in cultural, regional and climatic characterics. Social dynamics, the decline of fossil energy, increased population density, transportation, energy, communication, water infrastructures, are all challenges to be tackled in the near future.
The system implies that a city consists of basic functions and interlinked metadata to design the performance of the city. Metadata serve as criteria for the city creation and design process and to analyze impulses affecting all urban scales. Cities can be shaped by needs and desire. Outputs can be used to optimize urban design in order to achieve optimal economic and ecologic performances Graphene can play a vital role in the future by shaping urban and rural settings through water filtration, photovoltaic cells and biological Engineering.
Plan and section of spaces, where a gradient material creates a gradiet of heat distribution. With our research on possible graphene applications we have touched upon a new subject by introducing graphene in the spectrum of architecture. Which resulted in rethinking digital fabrication methods and design processes. The overall objective was to optimize the performing prototypes and to go through additive manufacturing methods.
Integrating graphene with traditional building materials enhance the thermal properties. Moreover, the outcomes indicate that graphene composites are able to produce heat and have the possibility to become a circuit of data transmission instantly assess them to see how they can be further developed. Reason for this was to fill the research gap and for a better understanding of graphene embedded composites. Different approaches improved the performance of the multi material prototypes for the purpose of thermal and electrical conductivity. This in turn can be developed as a system that is able to become a passive and self-operating structure.
We were able to establish one gradient going along the y-axis of the final prototype. The next step would be to add gradients in all axes. It is expected that working with multi materials is inevitable in both fabrication and construction and will result in innovative architecture. With different parameters the optimization of geometries and material distribution is achieved, then there is also the ability to construct very strong and slim structures.
The potential use of graphene in architecture is boundless.
European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids
Computing and the built environment can now merge together. Graphene has the potential to play a pivotal role in the near future shaping a new urban context.
Geim, A. The rise of graphene. Nature Materials, 6 3 , pp. Pichler, T. Molecular Nanostructures: Carbon ahead. Nature Materials, 6 5 , pp. Watcharotone, S. Nano Letters, 7 7 , pp. Wang, X. Nano Letters, 8 1 , pp. Meyer, J. The structure of suspended graphene sheets. Nature, , pp.
Miyamoto, Y. Ishigami, M. Atomic Structure of Graphene on SiO2. Nano Letters, 7 6 , pp. Castro Neto, A.
European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids
The electronic properties of graphene. Reviews of Modern Physics, 81 1 , pp. Shen, J. Synthesis of Amphiphilic Graphene Nanoplatelets. Small, 5 1 , pp. Andia, A. Blucher Design Proceedings, 1 7 , pp. Sitthi-Amorn, P. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 34 4 , pp. Hiller J. Halatsch, J. Heron, K.
This project is a study of graphene as an embedded material inside traditional building materials. Figure 1. Figure 2. Mixes of different viscosity Testing: The different mixes where placed in glass cases and then tested by applying voltage with electrodes. Viscous mixes on elastic surfaces ! Glass case Conclusions: These tests showed very inadequate results of electrical properties, as the presence of benzilic alcohol was severely compromising the conductivity of the composite.
Composites on elastic surfaces Testing: Having the electrical properties present again, measurements with application of voltage were possible on the prototypes. Figure 6. Conductivity test with LED light. Figure 8. Isometric drawing of the casts! Geometry types for prototypes! Thermal tests of the prototypes. Different cement prototypes Figure Pattern 1 Figure Pattern 2 Figure Pattern 3 Figure Pattern 4 Figure Pattern 5 After the first phase of experimentation, a series of more complicated prototypes were created, made by two cement slabs, shifted in two directions to interlock in a repetitive building system as bricks.
- 3D Analysis Of Functionally Graded Material Plates With Complex Shapes And Various Holes!
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Interlocking prototypes with the cross graphene pattern. Prototype with cross graphene pattern. Isometric explosion of the prototype and the cast. Drawing of the prototype and the cast Figure Drawing of the un - casted prototype The fabrication method of this brick was based on a laser — cut plywood cast. Photographs of the final prototype and the tilling arrangement. Testing: Voltage of Tests with the thermal camera of the prototypes Figure Conclusions: The first phase prototypes with mortar presented worst results than the ones with clay, as they had lower conductivity values and the ones with a distinct graphene circuit in the middle were cracking.
Graph of energy consumption per square metre. Graph of temprerature change per energy amount converted. Photograph of the solar experiment setup. Exploded drawing of the experiment apparatus. Solar experiment graph. Solar experiment data. Non conducti uctivity ucti Figure Homogenous graphene - clay prototypes. Catalogue of brick shapes Figure Second phase graphene - clay homonegous prototypes. Diagram of the air circulation setup Figure Isometric drawings of the radiator wall. Elevation of the radiator wall. Diagram of possible arrangements of the wall created by the modules.
Prototypes of the radiator bricks. First 3d printed prototype. The specimens incorporated three weight fractions, i. It has been established using a graphical goodness of fit procedure that the fatigue life distributions of PFRPCC at various stress levels approximately follow the two-parameter Weibull distribution with correlation coefficient exceeding 0.
The results of the graphical goodness of fit procedure have been reinforced with the help of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test and the Anderson-Darling test of goodness of fit. The fatigue strength prediction models, particularly representing S-N relationships, have been examined and the material coefficients have been obtained for PFRPCC containing different weight fractions of fibres. Furthermore, using Weibull distribution, probability of failure has been incorporated into the fatigue life data of PFRPCC to develop S-N-Pf relationships, both graphically and analytically.
Sivakumar, Y. In the design of these helical coil springs, it is necessary to identify the real behaviour which may be affected by the variation in actual coil diameter. Therefore, a simple formulation is proposed in this paper for predicting instantaneous coil diameter. The predictions from the present formulation match very closely with experimental measurements. The proposed formulation is relatively easy to adopt for design calculations. The effects of varying coil diameter on the spring characteristics are also discussed. This is very general and can be used for any helical spring that undergoes small or large deflections, although the proposed formulation is derived for an SMA helical spring.
Keywords : shape memory alloy; SMA; helical coil tension springs; instantaneous coil diameter; large deflection. The pore structures found on the surfaces of ACFs are strongly related to their functionality. Herein, ACFs were prepared via a two-step thermal treatment of cotton.
Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Plates
The diameters and width distributions of thus-prepared ACFs were characterised using scanning electron microscopy SEM. SEM analysis also revealed that the pore structures on the surfaces of the cotton-derived ACFs were activated by carbon dioxide. Successful adsorption functionality of these ACFs was characterised using a methylene blue solution. The effects of the two-step thermal treatment and potential applications of this methodology are also discussed. The proposed method can be used on other fibre products or industrial waste materials generated during the manufacture of cloth and fibres, and the generated ACFs can be used for energy-storage applications.
Keywords : activated carbon fibre; scanning electron microscope; thermal treatment; activation; pore structure; methylene blue; adsorption; cotton. Mahzuz, Md. Miniature gaps left in the concrete affect the concrete adversely. Fly ashs miniature and well-rounded shape can easily fill these gaps additionally offering some extra binding. The aim of this study was to use fly ash as a percentage of fine aggregate FA. To observe the effect on a number of variations, three weight based ratios The curing period has been set at 28 days.
A nonlinear relationship has been perceived within the resulting compressive strength and elasticity varying with different fly ash quantity. Finally a nonlinear regression model has been suggested to mathematically describe the findings. Keywords : concrete; fly ash; compressive strength; elasticity; nonlinear regression. Finite element method is used for numerical analysis of the task, accounting for large displacements and corresponding strains under changing boundary conditions.
Functionally Graded Materials: Nonlinear Analysis of Plates and Shells
The capability of the limit state reaching in the pipeline with loss of form stability is shown to depend on the pad layer and the pipe properties. It is demonstrated also that safety maintenance could be provided by usage of ribs, formed on a pipe by a cyclic thermomechanical actions. Keywords : structural material; deformation; strength; contact interaction; pipeline integrity; seismic steadiness; modeling; finite element method. Further, the soil strength gets decreased on soaking. In Haryana, alkaline soil deposits wrap most of the extensive areas, which are related to certain geotechnical issues like collapse upon wetting and susceptibility to strength loss.
Due to these characteristics, some of the roads constructed on alkaline soils in kurukshetra area have revealed worsening in case of cracking and raveling. The evaluation of the load-bearing capacity of stabilized soil mixtures is done using Standard proctor tests, and that are performed for evaluating the compaction behavior.
Finally, the test result has reviewed that the maximum dry density gets minimized and the optimum moisture content gets increased with the supplement of admixture. Chemical test due to the reaction in the submerged condition is performed in CSSRI lab in Karnal Haryana the following test pH, ECe, sodium potassium, calcium, magnesium test are performed in saturated and submerged condition after 30 days.
These samples are put in a container for 30 days in both condition to evaluate the chemical changes due to admixing of tile dust in alkaline soil.
Related 3D analysis of functionally graded material plates with complex shapes and various holes
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