Franckx ed. Franckx, K. Van den Bossche, D. Lutchman, K. Lutchman, C. Grieve, S. De Santo, K. Transatlantic Perspectives E. Brussels: VUB Press, pp. Dupont, Claire. In Walter Leal Filho ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. Wurzel and James Connelly eds. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, pp. Dupont, Claire, and Radostina Primova.
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Gender and Climate Change: an Introduction. Massai, Leonardo, Journal of Contemporary European Research, vol. Biedenkopf, Katja and Claire Dupont. Volume one: theoretical and institutional approaches to the EU's external relations, pp. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. The EU and Durban. Roche Kelly, Claire.
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Wolfrum ed. Dann Hrsg. Hilpold EJIL 20 , Commentaries 1. Case notes 1. EuGH v. BVerwG v. OVG Mecklenburg-Vorpommern v. This not only provided a strong stimulus to "internal" integration, but also built an initial framework for external relations. In , goods to the value of 15, billion US dollars were exported worldwide in , it was 12, billion dollars.
This equates to a growth of approximately These five countries together accounted for In , China was at the top of the list of the world's strongest exporting nations for the second time, followed by the USA and Germany. The discovery and conquest of Africa, America and East India in the late Middle Ages and the early modern period had long-lasting effects on the territories and regions involved. During the course of the 15th century, Portugal — centrally located at the connection between the two Atlantic zones — was able to conquer strategic locations along the west coast of Africa and in the African Atlantic region, though these bases suffered serious reversals between and These strongly fortified settlements, such as those on the west African island of Arguim and in the town of Elmina in present-day Ghana , were not only centres of the slave trade, but also served as bases for the trade in gold, malagueta pepper, ivory and other trade goods.
Initially, it was Italian sailors and captains who, in the service of Portugal, explored the Atlantic islands off North Africa. Lanzarote was named after him. In the early 15th century, the Portuguese secured further towns and islands in the region, for example Ceuta in , Madeira in , the Azores in and Cape Bojador on the African mainland. Subsequently, further bases along the west coast of Africa were added, progressing from north to south: Cabo Branco in , Cape Verde in , and the mouth of River Gambia in Here, the Portuguese began to trade extensively, acquiring African gold in return for red and blue dyed cloth, head scarves, coral from Europe, brass armbands from Germany, and Portuguese white wine.
In this trade as in the slave trade, yellow and red mussels from the Canaries were used as money. In the early modern period, Africa became the preferred region of operation of the privileged trading companies.
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England, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland and a number of other European countries delivered manufactured goods made of glass, metal and textiles, as well as weapons and alcohol to Africa in exchange for slaves , provisions, gold, etc. This European-African trade was often just one leg of the so-called triangular trade between Europe, Africa and America. This system of trade remained dominant from the 17th to the early 19th century, at which point the increasingly pervasive ban on slave trading shifted the focus of trade in Africa.
Most of the African states became dependent on European colonial powers who reduced them to the status of suppliers of raw materials and comprehensively exploited them. Similar to South America, monocultures emerged in Africa which were heavily dependent on the weather conditions and the harvest cycle. Water shortages, famines, low per capita incomes and low literacy levels remain the consequences of African "modernity" up to the present. In many African states, the economic dominance of Western states persists up to the present, often referred to as neo-colonialism in the literature.
The continuing demand for raw materials on the global market could greatly improve growth and the balance of trade in the resource-rich states of Africa if the resulting export surpluses were invested in the respective countries and found their way into the pockets of consumers there. In general, large differences in per capita incomes exist between the individual African states. The economic reality of Africa is too complex to be described solely in terms of dependency theories or the world system approach.
Leaving aside classical antiquity, territorial expansion from Europe towards Asia can be traced back to the period of the crusades, which lasted from the end of the 11th to the 13th century.
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Along the routes followed by the crusaders to southeastern Europe, across the Balkans and to the Levant, an impressive infrastructure emerged to meet the weaponry and provisioning needs of a few hundred thousand crusading knights and pilgrims bound for Jerusalem. Many of these provisioning stations were subsequently used by Italian and other European merchants for the transportation of goods to and from the Middle East and the Levant. Venice proved to be particularly well-placed geographically to benefit from this trade. It became the focal point for the exchange of goods and information between Asia and Europe, 34 and a "model" for the subsequent trade networks of the colonial powers of Portugal, the Netherlands and Britain.
In doing so, they utilized existing routes such as the Silk Road , an important axis of medieval "global trade" which grew in importance in the late 13th and 14th centuries. This had a profound effect not only on the material culture of Europe, but also on Europeans' idea of Asia. In the Battle of Curzola in , Marco Polo was taken into Genoese captivity, and he described his journey to the writer Rusticiano da Pisa while in prison.
Through the writings of the latter, some details of Polo's experiences in China entered the mosaic of images, facts and beliefs which Europeans associated with China. In addition to members of the Polo family, other contemporaries also set out for Central Asia, such as the Flanders native Wilhelm von Rubruk ca. Many were clergymen, such as the Franciscan Johannes von Montecorvino — who visited India and reported on spices such as pepper and cinnamon, and on the culinary habits of the Indians.
Odorico da Pordenone ca. More than of his manuscripts have survived, and his influence has been significant. Whereas the Polos had travelled to Asia primarily by land, sea voyages to Asia increased from onward when Bartholomeu Diaz ca. The establishment of the Portuguese empire in India made European-Asian relationships more permanent and secure. In some cases, Italian sea captains and southern German capital participated in these voyages.
It was no coincidence that many overseas expeditions by important explorers began in the Portuguese capital. The first expeditions to Asia during and after the discovery of the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope and into the Indian Ocean witnessed conspicuous efforts on the part of southern, central and western European merchants and consortia to promote their interests in the east by means of agents.
For example, wealthy Nuremberg and Augsburg merchants, and Dutchmen participated in the first voyages to India. Following the punctual pattern established in Africa, the Portuguese began to fortify ports and towns in strategically important places, in order to make them impervious to attacks. The cities of Calicut and Goa are examples on the Indian west coast. Development in the early modern period was dominated by the privileged trading companies of the Dutch and the British, but also of smaller states such as Denmark.
From the 17th century, the Netherlands played a leading role in trade between Europe and the rest of the world, particularly trade with Asia. Their power extended far beyond trade, and it resulted in a "golden age" in Holland and its main city, Amsterdam. In the 18th and 19th centuries, parts of Asia were increasingly drawn into the process of European industrialization. India in particular, as part of the Commonwealth, became an important source of raw materials particularly cotton as well as food and stimulants particularly tea.
The period of industrialization and of the rise of the middle class in Europe would not have been possible without these supplies and the intensification of exchange with Asia. The building of railways — a European innovation — began in the 19th century in Turkey , India, Japan and China, with lasting consequences for the territorialisation of economics and trade, and it provided the basis for further trade.
The telegraph line between Calcutta and London, which was constructed by Siemens and opened in , gave an important new stimulus to trade and the exchange of information between Europe and Asia. In all regions of Asia, enclaves and cities remained in European ownership until relatively recently, as in the case of Hong Kong which the British only relinquished in If one defines interdependence as a regular, planned, systematic, on-going and reciprocal exchange of information and goods, then one can observe the beginning of American-Asian relations in , at which time the Manila fleets began to sail regularly from Acapulco Mexico to Indonesia, or more specifically to the port city and trading centre of Manila on the Philippines.
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They brought precious metals, particularly silver, from Central America to Asia and usually transported spices, silks, porcelain and jewels back. Pearls from the islands of Cubagua and Margarita off the coast of Venezuela were also traded overseas. In the 16th century, this trade prompted southern German merchants such as Christoph Herwart — to get involved in trade with India.
A decade later, Dirk Hartog — reached the west coast of Australia. During the course of the 17th century, Willem de Vlamingh — and William Dampier — "discovered" other parts of the Australian continent, thereby facilitating the more concentrated exploration and mapping of Australia. From a European perspective, Australia did not play a significant role in trade, though there was some British foreign investment in Australia before the First World War.
This was focused primarily on the building and financing of infrastructure projects railways, harbours, public buildings, etc. Conversely, Australian wool and mutton were exported to Europe. The beginning of relatively regular economic relations between Europe and America occurred in the 16th century.
The initial contact with America which Vikings under Erik the Red —ca. Trade between the Old World and the New World constantly experienced fluctuations which were caused by by economic growth and developments such as the discovery, mining and transportation of precious metals. The supply of coin metal to European states from overseas affected the currency stability, liquidity, monetary independence, and ultimately the profitability of early modern capital markets. Consequently, the quantity of precious metals which was used to mint coins in Spain and Portugal should not be overestimated.
The inflationary effect of imported precious metals was therefore less significant than has been assumed. Around the beginning of the 16th century, Portugal's double expansion continued with its turning westward and commencing to colonize Brazil. Impressive colonial cities came into being on the coast, such as Salvador do Bahia , the first capital city of Brazil. Around , Pedro Alvarez Cabral ca. During this time, several groups of Portuguese Jesuits founded towns and the earliest sugar cane plantations in Brazil.
One such sugar mill was acquired by the Schetz company of Antwerp in Brazil played a large role in supplying Europe with inexpensive sugar in the early modern period due to big increases in productivity in the cultivation of sugar cane which brought down the price of sugar.
A similar development occurred in the case of maize, cocoa, coffee, tobacco and cotton. In the second third of the 16th century, transatlantic relations intensified, due in part to the discovery of precious metals in South America. During the course of the discovery of the American continent, not only did people of different ethnic backgrounds encounter one another, the material culture was also greatly enriched, for example by the arrival of previously unknown plants, animals and goods in Europe.
Medieval Europe had no knowledge of cocoa and, consequently, of chocolate. Some present-day dietary staples such as maize and the potato, which — like tapioca and nasturtium — are good sources of carbohydrates, were previously unknown in Europe also. Equally new to Europeans were sugar-rich plants such as sugar maple and protein-rich legumes such as beans. Other plants such as peanuts provided oil and fat. New vegetable types such as tomatoes, peppers and pumpkins, and nuts and fruits from avocados and pineapples to guavas and papayas appeared on European tables.
Spices such as vanilla, allspice and chili contributed to the refinement of European culinary tastes. Tobacco was also cultivated in Europe for the first time in the early modern period. It is beyond question that the exchange of new types of food and stimulants has had an effect on patterns of behaviour — and even on architecture — in the modern period. Smoking rooms or gentlemen's rooms containing pipe stands, ashtrays, matches and similar utensils were a given in 18th-century and 19th-century villas. Coffee houses were often popular meeting places for artists and literati, and were consequently much-frequented places for meeting and communication which had a considerable effect on the culture of large European cities.
New types of wood, such as rare pine species and mahogany, appeared in the sitting rooms of affluent Europeans. Quebracho trees and various species of mangrove provided tannic acid. Rubber trees and sweet potato trees provided rubber, while the wax palm, the carnauba palm and the jojoba provided wax. The variety of dyes available was also increased by access to tropical plants, ranging from the brazil wood to the redwood, the logwood, the yellowwood, and indigo, which began to replace woad in Europe. The New World was also a source of numerous plants which provided insecticides, such as barbasco roots, the bitterwood, and the cashew nut; even tobacco falls into this category.
Today "American" plants are even used as fuel sources, as experiments with tapioca, maize and species of copaiba demonstrate. Conversely, Europe enriched the American continent by the introduction of new animal and plant species, as well as new inventions, cultivation techniques and ideas. These ranged from horses, cattle, donkeys and hens to honeybees and silkworms, and from new types of cereals such as barley to apples, apricots, almonds, various types of cabbage, carrots, aubergines, flax and garlic.
Europeans also introduced a vast array of weapons and craft tools, as well as institutional innovations such as Roman law , which was established in many states of North and South America. There were also innovations such as the amalgamation process for extracting silver and gold from ores using mercury, or book printing , which accelerated and intensified the transfer of information and knowledge from the Old World to the New World.
To summarize, the encounter between the material and intellectual cultures of Europe and America resulted in enormous mutual enrichment and inspiration. Many more indigenous Americans died as a result of "European" diseases than died in violent confrontations during the course of the Conquista. Conversely, European travellers contracted "American" illnesses which had not existed in medieval Europe. In the 17th and 18th centuries, this often took the form of the so-called triangular trade, i. Slaves were bought in exchange for European manufactured goods and subsequently transported to the large estates of the West Indies and America on special slave ships.
The expanding European settlements in America required a growing number of labourers for the work on plantations and other possessions. As a result, the triangular trade persisted until the abolition movement of the 19th century. In addition to the role played by the American and French revolutions in promoting freedom and human rights, economic interests played a decisive role in this process. New economic systems which emerged as a result of the industrial revolutions began to replace old mercantilist forms. The emerging polypolistic variety of markets was accompanied by the intensification of market formation and of competition.
An economic transformation occurred, which introduced new institutional forms, a liberal economic and social order, and a radical integration of world markets. The global economy has multiplied by 44 since , and global trade has grown in volume by a factor of in the same period. Up to the First World War, Western Europe undoubtedly contributed most to the world gross social product.
In , it accounted for billion international dollars of a total of billion , which equates to By , this percentage declined to Rolf Walter. Jahrhundert, Munich Ball, J. Bayly, Christopher A. Braudel, Fernand: Sozialgeschichte des Jahrhunderts, vol. Cameron, Rondo: Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft, vol.
I, pp. Crosby, Alfred W. European Union ed. Fremdling, Rainer: Technologischer Wandel und internationaler Handel im Hamilton, Earl J.
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