Another protective factor is related to moderating the negative effects of environmental hazards or a stressful situation in order to direct vulnerable individuals to optimistic paths, such as external social support.
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More specifically a study distinguished three contexts for protective factors: . Furthermore, a study of the elderly in Zurich, Switzerland, illuminated the role humor plays as a coping mechanism to maintain a state of happiness in the face of age-related adversity. Besides the above distinction on resilience, research has also been devoted to discovering the individual differences in resilience. Self-esteem , ego-control, and ego-resiliency are related to behavioral adaptation. Ego-control is "the threshold or operating characteristics of an individual with regard to the expression or containment"  of their impulses, feelings, and desires.
Ego-resilience refers to "dynamic capacity, to modify his or her model level of ego-control, in either direction, as a function of the demand characteristics of the environmental context" . Maltreated children who experienced some risk factors e. Furthermore, maltreated children are more likely than nonmaltreated children to demonstrate disruptive-aggressive, withdraw, and internalized behavior problems.
Finally, ego-resiliency, and positive self-esteem were predictors of competent adaptation in the maltreated children. Demographic information e. Examining people's adaptation after disaster showed women were associated with less likelihood of resilience than men.
Also, individuals who were less involved in affinity groups and organisations showed less resilience. Certain aspects of religions, spirituality, or mindfulness may, hypothetically, promote or hinder certain psychological virtues that increase resilience. Research has not established connection between spirituality and resilience. According to the 4th edition of Psychology of Religion by Hood, et al. In military studies it has been found that resilience is also dependent on group support: unit cohesion and morale is the best predictor of combat resiliency within a unit or organization.
Resilience is highly correlated to peer support and group cohesion. Units with high cohesion tend to experience a lower rate of psychological breakdowns than units with low cohesion and morale. High cohesion and morale enhance adaptive stress reactions. In cognitive behavioral therapy , building resilience is a matter of mindfully changing basic behaviors and thought patterns.
Self-talk is the internal monologue people have that reinforce beliefs about the person's self-efficacy and self-value. To build resilience, the person needs to eliminate negative self-talk, such as "I can't do this" and "I can't handle this", and to replace it with positive self-talk, such as "I can do this" and "I can handle this". This small change in thought patterns helps to reduce psychological stress when a person is faced with a difficult challenge. The second step a person can take to build resilience is to be prepared for challenges, crises, and emergencies.
Resilience is also enhanced by developing effective coping skills for stress. Coping skills include using meditation, exercise, socialization, and self-care practices to maintain a healthy level of stress, but there are many other lists associated with psychological resilience. The Besht model of natural resilience building in an ideal family with positive access and support from family and friends, through parenting illustrates four key markers. They are:. In this model, self-efficacy is the belief in one's ability to organize and execute the courses of action required to achieve necessary and desired goals and hardiness is a composite of interrelated attitudes of commitment, control, and challenge.
A number of self-help approaches to resilience-building have been developed, drawing mainly on the theory and practice of cognitive behavioral therapy CBT and rational emotive behavior therapy REBT. A meta-analysis of 17 PRP studies showed that the intervention significantly reduces depressive symptoms over time.
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The idea of 'resilience building' is debatably at odds with the concept of resilience as a process,  since it is used to imply that it is a developable characteristic of oneself. Bibliotherapy , positive tracking of events, and enhancing psychosocial protective factors with positive psychological resources are other methods for resilience building. Contrasting research finds that strategies to regulate and control emotions, in order to enhance resilience, allows for better outcomes in the event of mental illness.
These strategies focused on planning, positively reappraising events, and reducing rumination helped in maintaining a healthy continuity. The Head Start program was shown to promote resilience. Military organizations test personnel for the ability to function under stressful circumstances by deliberately subjecting them to stress during training. Those students who do not exhibit the necessary resilience can be screened out of the training. Those who remain can be given stress inoculation training. The process is repeated as personnel apply for increasingly demanding positions, such as special forces.
Resilience in children refers to individuals who are doing better than expected, given a history that includes risk or adverse experience. Once again, it is not a trait or something that some children simply possess.
There is no such thing as an 'invulnerable child' that can overcome any obstacle or adversity that he or she encounters in life—and in fact, the trait is quite common. Research on 'protective factors', which are characteristics of children or situations that particularly help children in the context of risk has helped developmental scientists to understand what matters most for resilient children. Two of these that have emerged repeatedly in studies of resilient children are good cognitive functioning like cognitive self-regulation and IQ and positive relationships especially with competent adults, like parents.
However, this is not a justification to expose any child to risk. Children do better when not exposed to high levels of risk or adversity. Resilient children within classroom environments have been described as working and playing well and holding high expectations, have often been characterized using constructs such as locus of control , self-esteem , self-efficacy , and autonomy.
Communities play a huge role in fostering resilience. The clearest sign of a cohesive and supportive community is the presence of social organizations that provide healthy human development. Children who are repeatedly relocated do not benefit from these resources, as their opportunities for resilience-building, meaningful community participation are removed with every relocation. Fostering resilience in children requires family environments that are caring and stable, hold high expectations for children's behavior and encourage participation in the life of the family.
The definition of parental resilience, as the capacity of parents to deliver a competent and quality level of parenting to children, despite the presence of risk factors, has proven to be a very important role in children's resilience. Understanding the characteristics of quality parenting is critical to the idea of parental resilience. Numerous studies have shown that some practices that poor parents utilize help promote resilience within families. These include frequent displays of warmth, affection, emotional support; reasonable expectations for children combined with straightforward, not overly harsh discipline; family routines and celebrations; and the maintenance of common values regarding money and leisure.
Doob, "Poor children growing up in resilient families have received significant support for doing well as they enter the social world—starting in daycare programs and then in schooling. Beyond preventing bullying , it is also important to consider how interventions based on emotional intelligence EI are important in the case that bullying does occur. Increasing EI may be an important step in trying to foster resilience among victims.
When a person faces stress and adversity, especially of a repetitive nature, their ability to adapt is an important factor in whether they have a more positive or negative outcome. A study examined adolescents who illustrated resilience to bullying and found some interesting gendered differences, with higher behavioral resilience found among girls and higher emotional resilience found among boys. Despite these differences, they still implicated internal resources and negative emotionality in either encouraging or being negatively associated with resilience to bullying respectively and urged for the targeting of psychosocial skills as a form of intervention.
Transgender youth experience a wide range of abuse and lack of understanding from the people in their environment and are better off with a high resilience to deal with their lives. A study was done looking at 55 transgender youths studying their sense of personal mastery, perceived social support, emotion-oriented coping and self-esteem. This means that transgender youths with lower resilience were more prone to mental health issues, including depression and trauma symptoms.
Emotion-oriented coping was a strong aspect of resilience in determining how depressed the individuals were. Pregnancies among adolescents are considered as a complication, as they favour education interruption, poor present and future health, higher rates of poverty, problems for present and future children, among other negative outcomes. Sotomayor Obstetric and Gynecology Hospital Guayaquil assessing resilience differences between pregnant adolescents and adults.
Despite this, total CESD scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner and a preterm delivery related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Oftentimes divorce is viewed as detrimental to one's emotional health, but studies have shown that cultivating resilience may be beneficial to all parties involved.
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The level of resilience a child will experience after their parents have split is dependent on both internal and external variables. Some of these variables include their psychological and physical state and the level of support they receive from their schools, friends, and family friends. Children will experience divorce differently and thus their ability to cope with divorce will differ too. This comes to show that most children have the tools necessary to allow them to exhibit the resilience needed to overcome their parents' divorce. The effects of the divorce extend past the separation of both parents.
The remaining conflict between parents, financial problems, and the re-partnering or remarriage of parents can cause lasting stress. Child support is often given to help cover basic needs such as schooling. If the parents' finances are already scarce then their children may not be able to participate in extracurricular activities such as sports and music lessons, which can be detrimental to their social lives. Repartnering or remarrying can bring in additional levels of conflict and anger into their home environment. One of the reasons that re-partnering causes additional stress is because of the lack of clarity in roles and relationships; the child may not know how to react and behave with this new "parent" figure in their life.
In the past, divorce had been viewed as a "single event", but now research shows that divorce encompasses multiple changes and challenges. Certain programs such as the week Children's Support Group and the Children of Divorce Intervention Program may help a child cope with the changes that occur from a divorce.
Resilience after a natural disaster can be gauged in a number of different ways. It can be gauged on an individual level, a community level, and on a physical level. The first level, the individual level, can be defined as each independent person in the community. The second level, the community level, can be defined as all those inhabiting the locality affected. Lastly, the physical level can be defined as the infrastructure of the locality affected.
The World Economic Forum met in to discuss resiliency after natural disasters. They conclude that countries that are more economically sound, and have more individuals with the ability to diversify their livelihoods, will show higher levels of resiliency. Little research has been done on the topic of family resilience in the wake of the death of a family member. Resiliency is distinguished from recovery as the "ability to maintain a stable equilibrium"  which is conducive to balance, harmony, and recovery.
Families must learn to manage familial distortions caused by the death of the family member, which can be done by reorganizing relationships and changing patterns of functioning to adapt to their new situation. One of the healthiest behaviors displayed by resilient families in the wake of a death is honest and open communication. This facilitates an understanding of the crisis. Sharing the experience of the death can promote immediate and long-term adaptation to the recent loss of a loved one.
Empathy is a crucial component in resilience because it allows mourners to understand other positions, tolerate conflict, and be ready to grapple with differences that may arise. Another crucial component to resilience is the maintenance of a routine that helps to bind the family together through regular contact and order. The continuation of education and a connection with peers and teachers at school is an important support for children struggling with the death of a family member. Resilience has also been examined in the context of failure and setbacks in workplace settings.
Beyond studies on general workplace reslience, attention has been directed to the role of resilience in innovative contexts. Due to high degrees of uncertainty and complexity in the innovation process,   failure and setbacks are naturally happening frequently in this context. As a context-specific conceptualization of resilience, Innovator Resilience Potential IRP serves this purpose and captures the potential for innovative functioning after the experience of failure or setbacks in the innovation process and for handling future setbacks.
On the one hand, in this process, IRP can be seen as an antecedent of how a setback affects an innovator. On the other hand, IRP can be seen as an outcome of the process that, in turn, is influenced by the setback situation. Individualist cultures , such as those of the U. Independence, self-reliance, and individual rights are highly valued by members of individualistic cultures. Economic, political, and social policies reflect the culture's interest in individualism. The ideal person in individualist societies is assertive, strong, and innovative. Comparatively, in places like Japan, Sweden, Turkey, and Guatemala, Collectivist cultures emphasize family and group work goals.
The rules of these societies promote unity, brotherhood, and selflessness. Families and communities practice cohesion and cooperation. The ideal person in collectivist societies is trustworthy, honest, sensitive, and generous- emphasizing intrapersonal skills. Natural disasters threaten to destroy communities, displace families, degrade cultural integrity, and diminish an individual's level of functioning.
In the aftermath of disaster, resiliency is called into action. Comparing individualist community reactions to collectivist community responses after disasters illustrates their differences and respective strengths as tools of resilience. Some suggest that disasters reduce individual agency and sense of autonomy as it strengthens the need to rely on other people and social structures.
However, Withey and Wachtel conducted interviews and experiments on disaster survivors which indicated that disaster-induced anxiety and stress decrease one's focus on social-contextual information — a key component of collectivism. In this way, disasters may lead to increased individualism. Mauch and Pfister questioned the association between socio-ecological indicators and cultural-level change in individualism. In their research, for each socio-ecological indicator, frequency of disasters was associated with greater rather than less individualism.
Supplementary analyses indicated that the frequency of disasters was more strongly correlated with individualism-related shifts than was the magnitude of disasters or the frequency of disasters qualified by the number of deaths. Baby-naming practices is one interesting indicator of change. According to Mauch and Pfister Urbanization was linked to preference for uniqueness in baby-naming practices at a 1-year lag, secularism was linked to individualist shifts in interpersonal structure at both lags, and disaster prevalence was linked to more unique naming practices at both lags.
Secularism and disaster prevalence contributed mainly to shifts in naming practices. There is a gap in disaster recovery research that focuses on psychology and social systems but does not adequately address interpersonal networking or relationship formation and maintenance. A disaster response theory holds that individuals who use existing communication networks fare better during and after disasters. Moreover, they can play important roles in disaster recovery by taking initiative to organize and help others recognize and use existing communication networks and coordinate with institutions which correspondingly should strengthen relationships with individuals during normal times so that feelings of trust exist during stressful ones.
Future researchers might look at the organic nature of communication's role in community building, particularly in areas with limited resources. One problem a government agency or NGO might address is what to do when community networks exclude outsiders. In a collectivist sense, building strong, self-reliant communities, whose members know each other, know each other's needs and are aware of existing communication networks, looks like an optimum defense against disasters.
Whereas individualistic societies promote individual responsibility for self-sufficiency, the collectivistic culture defines self-sufficiency within an interdependent communal context Kayseret Even where individualism is salient, a group thrives when its members choose social over personal goals and seek to maintain harmony and where they value collectivist over individualist behavior McAuliffe et al.
Many years and sources of research indicate that there are a few consistent protective factors of young children despite differences in culture and stressors poverty, war, divorce of parents, natural disasters, etc. In her book, Ordinary Magic: Resilience in Development , she discusses the " immigrant paradox ", the phenomenon that first-generation immigrant youth are more resilient than their children. Researchers hypothesize that "there may be culturally based resiliency that is lost with succeeding generations as they become distanced from their culture of origin. Research by Rosemary Gonzalez and Amado M.
Padilla on the academic resilience of Mexican—American high school students reveal that while a sense of belonging to school is the only significant predictor of academic resilience, a sense of belonging to family, a peer group, and a culture can also indicate higher academic resilience. Considering the implications of the research by Masten, Gonzalez, and Padilla, a strong connection with one's cultural identity is an important protective factor against stress and is indicative of increased resilience.
While many additional classroom resources have been created to promote resilience in developing students, the most effective ways to ensure resilience in children is by protecting their natural adaptive systems from breaking down or being hijacked. At home, resilience can be promoted through a positive home environment and emphasized cultural practices and values. In school, this can be done by ensuring that each student develops and maintains a sense of belonging to the school through positive relationships with classroom peers and a caring teacher.
Research on resilience consistently shows that a sense of belonging—whether it be in a culture, family, or another group—greatly predicts resiliency against any given stressor. While not all languages have a direct translation for the English word "resilience", most have a form of the word that relates to a similar concept of "bouncing back". As a result, the concept of resilience exists in nearly every culture and community globally.
Additionally, as the world globalizes, language learning and communication have proven to be helpful factors in developing resilience in people who travel, study abroad, work internationally, or in those who find themselves as refugees in countries where their home language is not spoken. If a specific word for resilience does not exist in a language, speakers of that language typically assign a similar word that insinuates resilience based on context. Many languages use words that translate to "elasticity" or "bounce", which are used in context to capture the meaning of resilience.
However, this is not the case for all languages. For example, if a Spanish speaker wanted to say "resilience", their main two options translate to "resistance" and "defense against adversity". While these languages may not have a word that exactly translates to "resilience", note that English speakers often use tenacity or grit when referring to resilience. While one of the Greek words for "resilience" translates to "bounce", another option translates to "cheerfulness". Moreover, Arabic has a word solely for resilience, but also two other common expressions to relay the concept, which directly translate to "capacity on deflation" or "reactivity of the body", but are better translated as "impact strength" and "resilience of the body" respectively.
On the other hand, a few languages, such as Finnish , have created words to express resilience in a way that cannot be translated back to English. In Finnish, the word "sisu" could most closely be translated to mean "grit" in English, but blends the concepts of resilience, tenacity, determination, perseverance, and courage into one word that has even become a facet of Finnish culture and earned its place as a name for a few Finnish brands. The differences between the literal meanings of translated words shows that there is a common understanding of what resilience is.
The Child and Youth Resilience Measure and the Adult Resilience Measure are brief validated and reliable measures of resilience for children, youth, or adults. These short surveys consist of 17 base items which can be adapted and expanded using a process of localisation. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale  aims to quantify and assess resilience. While the test was originally created in English, it has been translated and adapted to several languages. In each translation, translators work hard to retain the meaning of the assessment prompts, even if it requires some modifying of phrasing or words.
In one instance in which the scale was translated into Polish , researchers translated it directly back into English, and presented English speakers with both the English and English-translated Polish version. When taking both versions, the scores obtained from both had negligible differences, insinuating that the context and meaning were retained. Recent research conducted by the British Council  ties a strong relationship between language and resilience in refugees.
Psycho-Social Adaptation and the Meaning of Achievement for Chinese Immigrants
Their language for resilience research conducted in partnership with institutions and communities from the Middle East, Africa, Europe and the Americas claims that providing adequate English-learning programs and support for Syrian refugees builds resilience not only in the individual, but also in the host community. Their findings reported five main ways through which language builds resilience: home language and literacy development; access to education, training, and employment; learning together and social cohesion; addressing the effects of trauma on learning; and building inclusivity.
The language for resilience research suggests that further development of home language and literacy helps create the foundation for a shared identity. This enhances resilience by providing a shared culture and sense of identity that allows refugees to maintain close relationships to others who share their identity and sets them up to possibly return one day. Thus, identity is not stripped and a sense of belonging persists. Access to education, training, and employment opportunities allow refugees to establish themselves in their host country and provides more ease when attempting to access information, apply to work or school, or obtain professional documentation.
Learning together encourages resilience through social cohesion and networks. When refugees engage in language-learning activities with host communities, engagement and communication increases. This creates a sense of belonging with the host communities alongside the sense of belonging established with other members of the refugee community through home language.
Additionally, language programs and language learning can help address the effects of trauma by providing a means to discuss and understand. Especially in schools, language learning establishes safe spaces through storytelling, which further reinforces comfort with a new language, and can in turn lead to increased resilience. The fifth way, building inclusivity, is more focused on providing resources. This overall addressing of needs feeds back into the increased resilience of refugees by creating a sense of belonging and community.
Additionally, a study completed by Kate Nguyen, Nile Stanley, Laurel Stanley, and Yonghui Wang shows the impacts of storytelling in building resilience. This study in particular showed that those who were exposed to more stories, from family or friends, had a more holistic view of life's struggles, and were thus more resilient, especially when surrounded by foreign languages or attempting to learn a new language.
Brad Evans and Julian Reid criticize resilience discourse and its rising popularity in their book, Resilient Life. Tied to the emergence of neoliberalism , climate change theory, third-world development, and other discourses, Evans and Reid argue that promoting resilience draws attention away from governmental responsibility and towards self-responsibility and healthy psychological affects such as "posttraumatic growth". Another criticism regarding resilience is its definition.
Like other psychological phenomena, by defining specific psychological and affective states in certain ways, controversy over meaning will always ensue. How the term resilience is defined affects research focuses; different or insufficient definitions of resilience will lead to inconsistent research about the same concepts.
Research on resilience has become more heterogeneous in its outcomes and measures, convincing some researchers to abandon the term altogether due to it being attributed to all outcomes of research where results were more positive than expected. There is also controversy about the indicators of good psychological and social development when resilience is studied across different cultures and contexts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Resilience disambiguation.
Main article: Grit personality trait. See also: Compensatory education. Stress and Health. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. M Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science. Kemp; James K. Whittaker; Elizabeth M. Transaction Publishers. Charlie worked for five years in immigration-related roles at the University of Sheffield and London School of Economics, issuing CAS and supporting international students. He is currently working in Sheffield in a technical role, and recently completed an MA at UCL's Institute of Education where his dissertation focused on the discourse of the hostile environment in universities.
Students have always used informal sources of visa advice. They get advice from other students, from family members, from the infamous "my friend", and from other well-meaning amateur advisers. As the professional adviser, you can unpick and correct any bad advice, but only if the student eventually comes to you. But what if they do not come to you? This session looks at some of the reasons why, despite having access to free and regulated immigration advice at their institution, some students seek advice elsewhere.
Specifically, we will look at the next generation of "my friend": online forums and sites such as Quora and Instagram where everyone is your friend. These sites offer opportunities for someone to crowdsource advice, for anyone to be an expert, and to foster a self-care approach which mistrusts facts and expert advice. Andrew is a freelance student adviser and trainer who has worked with international students for 30 years.
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This session will look at post graduation employment options for international students. Post study options are as relevant as part of the student recruitment and retention process as they are in the transitional period at the end of studies. Emma Brooksbank of Freeths Solicitors will provide succinct and valuable guidance on the options available for students to remain in the UK after their studies.
This could be to work for a UK employer or to germinate the seed of an entrepreneurial idea formed during their studies. This will be particularly relevant with the introduction of the new start up and innovator visas. Emma will cover business start up options under Tier 4 and Tier 1 and options for sponsored work under Tier 2. In we will see significant changes to the immigration system. Emma will provide insight into the anticipated changes and will consider immigration in a post-Brexit environment.
Emma is an immigration specialist, advising and assisting corporate, public sector and private clients in all areas of immigration law, policy making and business strategy. She particularly specialises in acting for higher education clients and has a strong reputation in the university sector.
She has been retained as a specialist advisor to the University of Leeds for over seven years and is directly engaged by their central human resources team and at faculties level. She has more recently been engaged by the University of Birmingham and Loughborough University. Emma assists and advises on complex Tier 2 matters, provides monthly one to one advice sessions for university employees, delivers regular Brexit update lectures and workshops and provides strategy advice and briefings.
We have successfully established WeChat as a useful channel to communicate with Chinese students and engage them with study and life at the University of Sheffield, in addition to other University social media platforms. It will also outline the collaboration work that has been carried out with other sections at the University.
One of the student WeChat editors will share their experiences of using and working on WeChat forum. Challenges of using WeChat will also be discussed with audience. There will also be an opportunity for audience to take part in an interactive session on WeChat. Her primary role is to provide immigration advice to International students studying with Tier 4 student visa. She also has a special interest in working with International students in non-immigration areas and providing support for enhancing the international student experience. This presentation consider the Government's proposed Immigration system post Brexit and other changes to the points based system.
It will cover. Lydia regularly works with businesses who wish to sponsor Tier 4 General students to switch into Tier 2 General. Tired of students ignoring your e-mails? Do you know what social medial platforms your students are using?
You need to find out and meet them there. If your role involves communicating with students and you would like to do this more effectively using social media platforms, then this session is for you. This presentation and participatory workshop will review the various platforms used at the University of Strathclyde to communicate with students including Snapchat, Twitter and Facebook. Participants will have the opportunity to be guided through creating a Twitter, Snapchat or Facebook account while investigating what type of content is of interest and consumed by your target audience for maximum engagement.
Suzanne Faulkner is an award winning teaching fellow in Prosthetics and Orthotics, within the department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. With 12 years teaching experience at the National Centre of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Suzanne is passionate about enhancing the student experience by focusing on improving student engagement.
With an increasing international cohort of students, she has employed various techniques to enhance communication and engagement with all students. These include using Snapchat as a tutorial tool, using various cloud based student response systems, utilising social media in learning and teaching and playful learning. Suzanne is a facilitator qualified in the Lego Serious Play LSP methodology, she is currently undertaking a masters in advance academic studies where she is evaluating the use of LSP to enhance participation of non-native speakers of English in group work activities.
She is also undertaking a diploma in digital management. Whilst those of us employed in Tier 4 compliance spend our time working extremely hard to ensure our institution meets the full requirements of the Immigration Rules and associated guidance, we are also subject to the wider institution working around us and perhaps not keeping compliance fully in their purview.
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